Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Pakistan Army Poster

Monday, April 13, 2009

Federico Macheda

Federico Macheda


Date of Birth:
22nd August 1991

Place of Birth:
Rome, Italy


2006-07 Lazio
2007-08 Manchester United

Current Club:
Manchester United


A powerful forward with a natural goal scorer’s eye for goal, 'Kiko', as he is known to his team mates, was born in Rome and is regarded as one of the most promising prospects of a generation in his homeland. Macheda Started his career with Lazio, an Italian Professional Sports Club most noted for its football section.

Following his family’s relocation to England, he officially joined as a trainee in Manchester United Club where he quickly moved up the ranks. Macheda signed his first professional contract with Manchester United on his 17th birthday in August 2008. He is most noted for his strength on the ball, positional sense in the box, and clinical finishing.

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Engro - Selection and Recruitment Process

Submitted To:
Ms. Sarah Mazhar

Submitted By:

Danish Raza
Fahad Jawed
Irfan Mansoor
M. Talal Saleem

Engro-An Overview
Engro is a diversified business enterprise, comprising of 5 subsidiaries and a joint venture company. Its business line includes chemical fertilizers, PVC resin, a bulk liquid chemical terminal, industrial automation, foods and power generation. Engro is currently serving customers in 17 countries globally through 11 offices in 3 countries in Asia and North America. A national company with an international reach, Engro is one of the largest and fastest growing companies in Pakistan today.

"To be the premier Pakistani enterprise with a global reach, passionately pursuing value creation for all stakeholders.”

Engro today stands recognized as a successful business operation and a role model for doing business in Pakistan.
* Engro Chemical Pakistan Limited (ECPL)
* Engro Vopak Terminal Limited (EVTL)
* Engro Polymer and Chemicals Limited (EPCL)
* Avanceon (formerly known as Engro Innovative Automation Pvt. Limited)
* Engro Foods Limited (EFL)
* Engro Energy Limited (EEL)
* Engro Eximp (Pvt.) Limited (EEPL)

Work Place:
Engro values each employee, their input and views. Continuously striving to become employer of choice, Engro provides a workplace where people feel confident, valued and inspired.

Work With Engro:
Engro’s innovation and financial strength help make it a dynamic place to work, giving its employees the advantage of a large company, with the agility of a small company, where their voices are heard.
Engro has never been a Company to rest on its laurels. Its people and its culture drive it to achieve greater success. Engro looks for new and exciting ways to return value to its customers and its shareholders. It’s tough and demanding but also fun and always interesting. Employees will have every opportunity to succeed – as an individual and as part of a team. Engro’s businesses give employees the flexibility for change, the opportunity to learn about new markets and provide unparalleled career options. Engro people are some of the best in the world with a shared passion to learn and stretch beyond their limits. It is our people who make Engro a great Company and an exciting place to work.

Why Engro:

Long-term Commitment:
The long term vision is to become a diversified chemical company operating internationally. To achieve this aim we need the best people. We therefore aim to recruit high caliber people and give them the opportunity to grow and to develop their talents. We look for long-term commitment on the part of both Company and employee and have designed our systems to fulfill the Company's part of this promise.

Compensation and Benefits:
The Company's Total Remuneration package is competitively aligned to the best in the industry and is appropriately balanced between providing cash compensation and benefits, including, medical and retirement benefits. The annual salary rewards are linked to employee performance.
An Employee Share Option Scheme operated by the Employees Trust offers new employees the opportunity to acquire ownership in the Company.

On-the-Job Development:
The Company believes strongly that people grow and learn most effectively through experience. Therefore, every opportunity is sought to try to develop an employee through work related experience. Such development implies an expansion or stretching of abilities or aptitudes. It has to be based on the knowledge, skills, and aspirations within oneself. This form of development needs to be understood and actively supported by the employee and the supervisor.

Training and Education:
The Company has a range of training programs, both core management and technical, which are used on a regular basis to develop skill and knowledge. In addition, specific one-off programs may be developed where there is a need. Alternatively, individuals may attend externally run programs and there may be cases where learning by planned job experience is the best answer. Employees contribution to assessing own training needs are welcomed as are the suggestions for suitable programs. Engro’s appraisal system has a structure which calls for employee input to this discussion.

Career Development:
Engro is committed to the essential concept that career development is a shared responsibility, with employees’ part in it being an active and positive one.
Its aim is to match employees’ personal needs, desires and skills with the requirements of the Company for the right person in the right job at the right time. Our system requires employee’s contribution to the discussion about the future at the time of the appraisal interview.

Compensation Organization and Executive Development Committee (COED):
The Compensation Organization and Executive Development Committee defines a new position whenever it is required. When a department wants a new position to be established it goes to COED. The COED then asks for the reasons for the new position. If the COED accepts the reasoning, it gives its permission to the department and the advertisement is place in the newspapers.
The COED is also responsible for promotion within the organization. Whenever a position is vacant and a member of the organization is to be promoted, a member of COED brings his case to the COED meeting where it is thoroughly discussed. After the case is discussed a voting is carried out and it decides whether to promote the person or not.
The third function of COED is to rate individuals within the organization. The committee rates the employees according to their performance and skills. They then distribute the employees in the three groups, with the best member in the top one-third and the least performers in the lower one-third.

The Recruitment Process:
The recruitment process is taken very seriously. It is vital that Engro select people with qualities essential for its continued success. Its human resource team is comprised of experience recruitment professional with diverse backgrounds.
During the recruitment process objective view is taken and best practices are followed. Engro’s recruitment methodology is based on examining capabilities or competencies. These capabilities are sets of behavior skills and knowledge that can be determinants of job success and focus on the role requirements. Thereby insuring consistency and accuracy in assessments and increasing the reliability of the selection process.
The recruitment is different for two different categories of people. First is the Management Profession and Technician and the second is Non Management Profession and Technician. There are seven different division of Engro. All have separate HR departments which evaluate the candidates for respective positions in their division

Management Profession and Technician:

Identification of need:
The first step is to check whether there is a requirement for new selection. If there is a new position to be developed then COED checks for that. If an already existing position has become vacant due to any reason, then the department notifies the Human Resource Department to place advertisement in the newspapers.

After the identification of need, the Human Resource department places the advertisement in the newspaper to call for resumes. The advertisement specifies the job description and the job specification.

· Job description:
These are the listing of duties as well as desirable qualifications for a particular job e.g. the advertisement also specifies number of years worth of experience to apply for the job.

· Job specifications:
These are the characteristics and the abilities required from a person to work in that position such as leadership and teamwork qualities or command over English.

Application Form\ Submission of Resume:
Application forms enable the candidates to present a complete picture of their talents, interests and ambitions. It is the first stage of evaluation and the basic criteria for initial selection. The candidates must present a resume which makes the person stand out.

Evaluation of Resume:
After the resumes of hopeful candidates have been received, the HR department checks all the resumes of the people who have applied. In its evaluation the HR department checks the experience and the qualities of the individual and matches them to the requirement of the job.

Short Listing:
After the evaluation of the resumes the HR shortlists the candidates who have fulfilled the minimum requirement of the job description and specification.

The test is conducted by the HR department. In the test the managers check the IQ level, English Composition and Logic. The duration of the test is exactly one hour. The test is checked manually and is done by the HR department.

The candidates who have successfully cleared the tests and have scored above than relevant mark are then called for interview. The interview is conducted by four people, on executive and three managers. All the four interviewers should preferably be from within the department but often that is not the case.
The purpose of the interviews is to check the person’s subjective skills which are difficult to measure such as attitude, communication skills, abilities and personality. During the interview all four person mark the candidate individually and then put forward a cumulative mark. These are the marks against which different candidates are differentiated.

Recommendation to Human Resource Department:
Following the interview the employee of the particular department goes to the HR and gives recommendation to the HR manager regarding the interview of the candidate. The HR then conducts an interview with the candidate where they decide the Grade scale of the candidate, the different benefits and the pay scale.

After the terms of contract is agreed upon, the candidate is asked to have a medical test.

After the medical test, the candidate is referred back to the relevant department with the contract. If the department agrees upon it, then the candidate is hired.

Non Management Profession and Technician:
The non Management Profession and Technician recruitment procedure is the same except for the basic difference that they don’t sit the test. They only have to send the resume and pass the interview. There also is a difference in the interview. While for MPT there are three managers and one executive, in the NMPT procedure there are no executives. The managers may or may not be present in the interviews. Otherwise it has the same procedure.
· Identification of need
· Advertisement
· Application Form\ Submission of Resume
· Evaluation of Resume
· Short Listing
· Interview
· Recommendation to Human Resource Management
· Medical
· Hiring

Source: Engro's Official Website

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Nintendo Wii

Manufacturer: Nintendo

Type: Video game console

Generation: Seventh generation

CPU: IBM PowerPC-based "Broadway"

Storage: 512 MB Internal flash memory

Capacity: SD card, SDHC card, Nintendo GameCube Memory Card

Graphics: ATI "Hollywood"

Nintendo Wii has revolutionized the gaming world. To see how it has done so, you have to try it yourself. It gives a unique gaming experience for the whole family. You don’t just play games, but experience it. What stands Nintendo Wii out of its competitors is its Wii Remote which has motion detection technology. Keep on reading to see why your home is incomplete without Nintendo Wii.

Wii Remote:

You can use the remote for swinging a racket, bat or ball. In a racing game, the remote becomes your steering wheel. All you need to do is pick up the remote and get ready for the pitch. The Wii Remote also packs a speaker, rumble feature, and external extension connector for other input devices.

Sensor Bar:

The Sensor Bar has two points of infrared light that the Wii Remote uses to sense its position in a 3D space. Wii Remotes can be used 6 to 10 feet away from the TV screen. The Sensor Bar can work with 4 Wii Remotes simultaneously.

Wireless Connectivity:

- Wi-Fi

- Bluetooth

- 2 × USB 2.0

- LAN Adapter (via USB)

- Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection (for online connectivity)

Wii communicates wirelessly with the Internet via your router or a Wii LAN adapter. The console can also communicate and connect with other Wii systems through a self-generated wireless LAN, enabling local wireless multiplayer on different television sets.


- 12 cm Wii Optical Disc

- 8 cm Nintendo GameCube Game Disc

Retail copies of games are supplied on DVD-like Wii Optical Discs packaged in case along with instruction information.

List of games published by Nintendo:

All Virtual Console games have been re-published by Nintendo.


Wii Sports

Excite Truck

The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess

Wii Play


WarioWare: Smooth Moves

Eyeshield 21: Field Saikyō no Senshi (Japan only)

Super Paper Mario

Mario Party 8

Big Brain Academy: Wii Degree

Pokémon Battle Revolution

Mario Strikers Charged

Metroid Prime 3: Corruption

Donkey Kong Barrel Blast

Battalion Wars 2

Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn

Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games (Published by Nintendo in Japan only)

Super Mario Galaxy

Link's Crossbow Training


Wii Chess (Europe only)

Everyone's Common Knowledge Television (Japan only)

Endless Ocean

Super Smash Bros. Brawl

Mario Kart Wii

Wii Fit

Mario Super Sluggers

Wario Land: Shake It!

Fatal Frame IV (Japan only)

Captain Rainbow (Japan, Europe and Australia only)

Wii Music

Disaster: Day of Crisis (Japan, Europe North America and Australia only)

Animal Crossing: City Folk

Announced for 2009

Wii Sports Resort

Punch-Out!! Wii

Start w/ 100 Conversations! English Conversation

Another Code: R, Gateway of Memory


Cosmic Walker

Spawn Smasher

Dynamic Slash

Tact of Magic

Sin & Punishment 2

Forever Blue 2: Beautiful Ocean

Everyone's the Star on the NHK Red-and-White Quiz Battle

Line Attack Heroes

Hoshi no Kirby

Excitebots: Trick Racing

Release Date Unknown

Project H.A.M.M.E.R.

Pikmin 3

The Legend of Zelda

Super Mario Platformer

Source: Nintendo's official website, wikipedia

Coming up Next: Wii fit !!!

Friday, April 10, 2009

Difference between Business-to-Customers & Business-to-Business Markets

Business to Customers (B2C) Markets:-

- Good are purchased in little quantity
- Low risk involved
- Emotional decisions
- Long term relationships are not necessary
- Standardized products
- Fixed price
- Consumer use products for personal use
- Only one individual customer is involved in buying decision

Business to Business Markets (B2B):-

- Goods are purchased in bulk
- High risk involved
- Rational decisions
- Long term relationships are necessary
- Customized products
- Negotiable prices
- Products are supplied or used to do operations
- More than one person is involved in buying decision

Toshiba TG01

Toshiba has finally come up with a device that will music to your ears. It is Toshiba TG01, an amazing 9.9 mm handset with exciting features. Its 1 GHz Snapdragon chip makes it considerably faster than any device currently on the market. It will not only revolutionize the entertainment world, but also force competitors to come up with new exciting devices at competing prices. Toshiba TG01 offers the best user experience by giving easy one-handed touch operation and smooth transition between applications. It’s customizable with quick access to favorites and carries all data you wish to put in.

Qualcomm Snapdragon QSD2850, 1 GHz processor

microSD (Trans Flash) up to 32GB

TFT touch screen, 256K colors, 480 x 800 pixels, 4.1 inches

Touch-sensitive navigation controls- Accelerometer sensor for auto-rotate- 3D user interface- Shake control

Camera 3.15 MP, 2048x1536 pixels

GPRS Class 10 (4+1/3+2 slots), 32 - 48 kbps
EDGE Class 10, 236.8 kbps
WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11b/g
Bluetooth Yes, v2.0 with A2DP

Microsoft Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional
Built-in GPS receiver- A-GPS function
Pocket Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, PDF viewer)
DivX Support


Siftables are cookie sized computers for hands-on fun. They are with motion sensing, neighbor detection, graphical display and wireless communication. Different small sized computers act in concert to form a single interface. Users can physically manipulate them to interact with digital information and media. They are small cube sized computers, which work independently, but when joined together as a group, they can be used to interact with digital information and media.


A color LCD screen
A rechargeable battery and RF radio
They are compact (approx. 1.4” x 1.4” x .39”)
Contain four infrared transceivers


Interactive Cartoons
Digital Photo organization
Music sequencing

Introduction to Information Systems

For any system to be considered an Information System, it should have following four components.

- Hardware
- Software
- People
- Data

Example: Online Banking, Cell phones.

A system is a combination of many interrelated units/components that work together to achieve a common purpose.

Information System:
Set of interrelated components (Resources), i.e. Hardware, Software, People and Data.

- They create and use information
- Store information ( entering data in a data base or simply saving a file)
- Transform information (converting data into meaningful information, organizing and analyzing data)
- Disseminate information (sharing and spreading of information)

Decision Making:
- Day to day strategic decisions
- Decision Levels:
1) Strategic level decisions

2) Tactical Level decisions

3) Operational level decisions

Operational Level:
- Structured decisions: Predefined, preformatted and routine decisions. For example, pay roll system, accounting entry, attendance policy
- Short term decision making (daily, weekly, monthly targets)
- Detailed and Internal Information (for example a store manager requires detailed sales report. Sales reports are generated to see the progress and decline for particular level. Managers look for problems and identify them through the reports)
- Keeping record
- Keeping track of Progress
- Information System used: MRS(management reporting system) & MIS(management information system)

Tactical/Middle level:
- Semi structured decisions (advertising campaign, marketing plan, budgeting, hiring and firing, performance appraisal)
- Trend analysis and forecast. Analytical modeling software and systems are needed ( mathematical, financial and statistical modeling )
- Short term to middle term decisions.
- Ad hoc decision making i.e. as and when required. Ad hoc decisions are situational.
- Internal and External information
- Information has to be external as well, because they need to know what competitors are doing.
- Filtered and Critical information (instead of detailed information on sales, only key information is needed like reasons for decline in sales)
- Information system used: DSS (decision support system). It helps to make decisions.
- Different ways of getting external information e.g. corporate spies

Strategic Level:
- Unstructured decisions (mission statement, new products, mergers and acquisitions, lay offs, diversification and outsourcing)
- Very critical and filtered information ( external and internal sources)
- Expert systems: Systems that are used to make preliminary decisions. They use information to make the decisions
- Information system used: ESS (executive support system)/ EIS (executive information system). They give short, graphic, trend or comparison systems.
- There is a thin line between strategic and tactical level. (when decisions can’t be made at tactical level, they forward it to strategic level)

Role of Information Systems:

1) Support Business Operations:
(ATM machines, Barcode readers, tracking system, automated system at petrol pumps). Automated means using IS to automate business activities or process.
- Cost and time efficient
- Store and secure information

2) Provides Support for decision making:
(It keeps record of how many people were absent and helps in making conclusions). An analytical system that helps in decision making would fit here.
- Performance appraisal
- Decisions are made at all the three strategic level, i.e. Strategic, tactical and operational

3) Support of its strategies for competitive advantage:
- Organizations use IS to achieve competitive advantage. It requires innovative applications of information technology. It can be direct or indirect. Direct when a better service or product is provided to the customers. Indirect, when an organization improves its internal environment. All systems implemented by an organization to give strategic advantage are strategic information systems.

Global Information Society
- End Users
- Specialists
- Knowledge Users

Following are the different concepts of how Information systems have changed the way companies work:

1) Globalization:
- global production facilities
- global customer/markets
- global investments
- global competitors
- global alliances

2) Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

3) Agile Competition

Five strategies used by competitors:
- Low cost strategy
- Innovation
- Differentiation
- Expansion/Growth
- Alliance

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Ethnic Conflicts

A Research by Fahad Jawed

An ethnic conflict or ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. This can be due to any particular reason such as the lack of resources. They are of attention because of the obvious occurrence since the Cold War and because they often result in war crimes such as genocide. Intellectual debate has also focused around the issue of whether ethnic conflict has become more prevalent since the end of the Cold War, and on devising ways of managing conflicts, through instruments such as consociationalism and federalization.

Anthropologist Charly Gabriel Mbock cautions that there is more to ethnic conflict than meets the eye. He says:

"Most of the so-called ethnic conflicts are the consequences of poorly-studied and poorly-resolved social problems. The conflicts, before they are called ethnic, are initially -- and remain essentially -- social.”

According to him the seeds of ethnic conflicts are not ethnic but social.


To get my findings I questioned a lot of people and gave questionnaire to IBA students. I also personally interviewed people to get their finding about the current ethnic situation in Karachi.


1. To which ethnic group do you belong?

2. Do you think that ethnic hostility is present in Karachi?

3. If the answer is yes then the groups which are involved in this ethnic hostility?

4. To what lengths will they go in this ethnic hostility?

5. Who do you think started it?

6. When did it start?

7. What do you think might be the reasons to this ethnic conflict?

The questionnaires were extended to 30 people and interviews were carried about through personal exchange of questions and view points. Also I did a research with the help of the internet and the newspaper to get a through background about the roots of ethnic violence.


The findings, as expected, were varied and the various ethnic groups had suppressed hostilities towards other ethnic groups. They were also hesitant to admit the fact that their group was indeed involved in any kind of ethnic violence. The participants were quick to regard the other group as the one involved in any kind of violence.

The people had come from various ethnic groups such as the Mohajirs, Pathans, biharis etc.

Everybody from the participant agreed that there were indeed ethnic conflicts among different group members especially in Karachi which is inhabited by different ethnic groups.

As mentioned above almost all the participants said their group was not involved in any kind of ethnic conflict but most of the participant who were not Mohajirs and Pathans said that the majority of the ethnic conflicts were between Pathans and Mohajirs.

This question received the most controversial answer. Many people were of the view that the groups could go to any length to win this contest and would resort to violent conflicts.

Most of the people had a divided view on this. Some said the pathans and the rest termed the Mohajirs as the culprit.

Most people were of the view that this immediately started after independence.

The people cited many reasons such as the will to dominate one another, lack of housing and lack of resources in Karachi. Many people also called the government’s inability to distribute the nation’s wealth.


The data suggests that there are definitely ethnic differences and hatred present deep in Karachi’s society but the data also suggest people are reluctant to admit that they have ethnic hatred present in them by the fact that they do not believe that their groups are the one involved in any kind of hatred or ethnic conflict.

Many people were of the view that the rift actually existed between the Mohajirs and the pathans. They were not the original inhabitants of this city but migrated as the city grew. Some analyst put the growth of Karachi as 432% which is the highest record for a city to grow ever in history. With such tremendous development it was naturally expected that there was a wave of immigrants which diversified the already present population of the city. Therefore it was natural that the city experienced tremendous pressure on its meager resources

The kind of thinking prevalent is that the groups can go to any lengths in ethnic violence. The operation conducted in 1991 was specifically against this ethnic violence which led to thousands of people killed. Ethnic violence has its roots deep in Karachi. The rift started when the respective groups tried to dominate each other and establish their stronghold. This had already started after independence and continued to grow.

Due to limited resources and the high generation of revenue many groups tried to dominate the economic hub. Presently the transport industry is dominated by the pathans. On the other hand major industrial areas are dominated by the Mohajirs.

These has always been a source of confrontation to the rival groups and as the respose was these groups indeed have gone to many lengths to out smart each other. In the 1980’s these hostilities reached its extreme when there were gun battles between the various groups. The operation conducted in 1991 was specifically against this ethnic violence which led to thousands of people were killed.


It is imperative to realize that the bases of ethnic conflicts are no different in Karachi than they are in London or Lagos. Hatred, deprivation, dissatisfaction and greed are some of the universal seeds of conflict and violence that lie dormant to varying degrees in all human beings everywhere and throughout history. No person or a city or a country can claim that it has no ethnic violence. What, however does differ is the level of discipline a person or a society has. Personal actions depend on education and inheritance; social interaction is based on the level of civilization attained by a society. In primitive societies like Pakistan, practices like karo-kari and blood feuds go largely unpunished, but in more evolved ones, they are neither tolerated nor condoned. Therefore while the seeds of ethnic conflict In Karachi’s case, hospitable factors have been provided by neglect, bad governance and prejudice, to name only three.

However, the dimensions of the Karachi conflict go far beyond the MQM or any other political party. Eventually the struggle is only on the wealth of the country’s economic hub. Almost every minority thinks that it has not been given its proper share. Irrespective of the statistics, this perception has gained so much currency over the years that it is taken for granted in all the minority provinces. In a sense, the Mohajirs of urban Sindh have a sense of double deprivation: on the one hand they feel they have been marginalized at the national level; on the other they think they are getting a raw deal in Sindh in terms of government jobs and college admissions.

An element fuelling the Mohajir’s sense of deprivation and frustration is of a cultural and psychological dimension. Today there are Mohajir activist just around in their teens. How on earth can they remember their ancestral house but have been fed on the steady information that there were good days back then. This is expected immigrant psychology except for the fact that often these people get absorbed by the community through marriages but in this case this was not possible.

Influence of Personality Variables in Ethical Decision Making

We often face situations in which we have to make complex ethical decisions. For example, telling your boss that the decline in the sales was because of your flawed promotion strategy. Whenever, we have to make such decisions our personality variables like our emotions, attitude, Values and beliefs, influence our behaviors and actions. One more personality variable that has been found to influence ethical decision making is Locus Of Control (LOC).

Locus of Control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that events are under their control. It is also based on whether an individual believes there is a causal relationship between his decisions and the potential consequences of his decisions. There are two types of Locus Of Control; Internal Locus of Control and External Locus of Control.

Individuals with Internal Locus of Control are called Internals. Internals believe that there is a causal relationship between their actions and the consequences of those actions. They believe that whatever they face in their lives is directly related to the decisions they make and the actions they take. Internals are more likely to take responsibility of their actions as they believe that whatever happens is linked to their decisions.

On the other hand, Individuals with External Locus of Control are called Externals. They believe that there is less or no causal relationship between their actions and the consequences of those actions. They believe that events are under the control of fate, luck and powerful others. Since they don't believe in any cause and effect relationship between their actions and potential outcomes of those actions, they are less likely to accept responsibility of their actions.

Studies have found that individuals with internal LOC report more ethically sensitive responses than individuals with external LOC. Internals believe that there is a link between their attitudes, actions and subsequent outcomes of those actions which is why they are expected to give more ethically sensitive responses.

Social Evolutionism ( A brief Over view )

Social evolutionism describes how culture and societies developed over time. It explains the relationship among technology, social culture and social values of the society. It provides the basis for understanding how culture changed with time.In the early years the prevailing view was that culture evolves in a uniform progressive manner and most societies pass through same stages of evolution. Subsequently, it was proposed that evolutionary scheme consist of three stages: savagery, barbarism and civilization. This idea became more popular in 19th century.It was believed that evolutionary scheme ranges from primitive to civilized societies which, in other words, means that some societies were degenerated. This belief changes in the 19th century when theorists like Tylor and Morgan proposed that all societies pass through the same stages of evolution at an uneven rate. They believed that simpler class of societies resembled the ancient societies, while the advanced societies contained traces which confirmed that they went through the same stages of evolution which the simpler societies were going through.The stages of development were later distinguished in terms of technological advancement. Savagery was marked by discovery of fire, barbarism by discovery of iron and irrigated agriculture and civilization by phonetic alphabet. Different theorists were focused in different ideas and studies, as in family units, it was believed that family units became smaller with the development of societies. All these theories were uni lineal as all of them argued that all the societies pass through same stages of evolution. Thus, primitive society, which was previously considered as degenerated group, was later believed to be representative of the earlier stages of the advanced society.This idea lost its influence in the twentieth century after the predominance of the universalism.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Pakistan Textile Industry

By Fahad Jawed


Pakistan is the 4th largest producer and 3rd largest consumer of cotton in the world and 8th largest exporter of textile products in Asia. The industry contributes 8-9% to the GDP and provides employment to 38% of overall work force and 45% of industrial work force. Pakistan's 60-70% of foreign exchange is dependent on textiles.

• We export $ 10.62 billion of cotton
• Textile share in exports is 57%
• Textile share in GDP is 8.5%
• Levels of skills required are not very high
• Standardized technology 
• Economies of scale are insignificant so it suits our domestic environment

Factor Condition


• Produce short to medium quality staple cotton
• 4th largest producer of cotton
• The cotton yields for Pakistan were 586 kgs/hectare compared to 1129 kgs/hectare in China in 1999-2000.
• Impurity content due to water, thrash and packaging in jute bags

Labor Force

• Low labor cost (43 cents for Pakistan followed by 47 cents in India, 57 cents in China, 52 cents in Indonesia and 60 cents in Egypt while Bangladesh and Vietnam outweighed this advantage with even lower costs 27 and 29 cents respectively (BR 2007))
• Lack of skilled labour
• Low labor productivity……6:1 Korea: Pakistan….ACCORDING TO MS KHADIJA

• CIRCLE:--- Impure short staple>>>>coarse to medium count yarn>>>>difficulty in dying>>>>can be used in limited range of low priced products>>>>market order such products(IMAGE)>>>>Impure short staple
• Technical institutions:- Curriculum is old
• Lack of incentives and pay scale given to employees

Machinery and Equipment

• Spinning sector has good equipment
• Weaving sector has OK equipment
• Garment Sector has pathetic equipment
• Weaving capacity is less than spinning capacity

Synthetic fibre
International firms are focused on blended fibre because it's more durable and comortable. India is using 40% of cotton for the production of blended fabric where as Pakistan is using only 18%.

Firm strategy and structure

• Many of the looms are in the unorganized sector
• Units are small so its is difficult to attract large contracts
• Middle level management is incompetent
• World Bank notes that textile sector suffered from low diversification due to government restrictive policies on import of polyester (25% tariff rate) coupled with poor administration of import duties and duty rebates schemes (World Bank 2002).
• 6 % R&D gone….NO R&D department
• No timely order deliver
• Loans taken on the pretext of textile sector during the 1990’s invested in real estate in DUBAI
• Few quality control department
• Seth culture
• Spun yarn is not used to make high quality value added product

Demand condition

• Pakistan catered to around 3 % of the textile market globally in 2005 producing $10 billion of textile worth
• Pakistan is heavily dependent on European countries, USA and the Middle East for exports due to demand from those countries
• People in Pakistan prefer short staple
• Demand is not sophisticated in Pakistan
• The demand for blended cotton is increasing while we manufacture 100 % cotton products
• Thailand and Korea have strong synthetic strength which gives us tough time

Related and Supporting Industry

• The capacity of related and supporting industries is often weak
• We are well supported by the local building industry such as curtains, insulation etc.
• The health sector requires high quality textile products which we do not make .e.g. artificial heart and kidneys
• Protective material also require high quality textile products e.g. bullet proof vests
• No manufacturing plant for developing capital units
• No fashion schools
• Film industry(no comments….e.g. gunda Punjab da and Raju rocket)
• No trading companies


  • Venture capital markets to import new capital

  • Economic planning board:- industry and institution to develop curriculum in line with industry needs

  • Textile city or parks:- banking system, export trading, industry units etc. economies of scale and sharing of knowledge

  • Internship programs by textile industry

  • Outlets in Pakistan of products we export to sophisticate demand

  • Product development department should be established

  • Competition should be encouraged to promote rivalry

  • Diversify markets, Refocusing and Exploring new market

  • Ensure timely delivery of orders

  • Proper management practices

  • Decentralize chain of command

  • development of manufacturing plants

  • Advanced machinery should be imported

Pakistan Sugar Industry


It is the 2nd largest industry after textile. Pakistan is the 5th largest country in terms of area under cultivation. Its contribution to the GDP is 1.9 %. The industry is the main source of employment generation for the rural areas (nearly 12-13 % of agricultural labor force). It’s a good source of foreign exchange. These industries are in the rural areas of the country which is why it’s good for the development process in the rural areas.



In 1947, Pakistan had only 2 sugar mills, Rahbali in Sindh and Takhbai in Punjab with the capacities of 600 TCD and 1200 TCD respectively. To meet its requirement the country started importing sugar. In 1957, the govt. setup a commission to frame a scheme for the development of the Industry. In this way the first mill was established at Tando Muhammad Khan in 1961. Between 70’s and 80’s 15 new mills were established.


From 1991 to 2000 the output increased at an average of 24%, production by 11.7% and cultivated area by 10.7 %. There were 71 functioning mill in 1998-99, which reduced to 67 due to the financial crisis in 1999-2000.


Currently we have between 70-80 sugar mills and around 74 are operational. In Punjab 80 % of the sugar cane is taken by the mills, 87% in Sindh and 30% in NWFP. The sugar cane of Sindh is better than the sugar cane grown in Punjab because of the better climatic conditions.


The area under cultivation has increased by 100% due to the government support policies, institutional loaning and support prices.


The average output per hectare is 63 tones. Columbia produces around 133 tones per hectare, India 72 tones and Pakistan 47 tones.


64% of total cost of producing sugar is sugar cane. Mills are dependant in terms of their capacity utilization as to how much sugar cane they can hold on.


Sugar cane requires high temperature, plenty of sunlight, good drainage, high fertility of soil and lots of fertilizers. Either 1525 mm of rain or irrigation is required.


We recover around 11-12 % of sucrose and lose 20% because of mismanagement. To recover the maximum sucrose content, sugar cane should be in the mill within 6 hours of harvesting.


Minimum Sucrose content limit sent by the government is 8.7%. To increase the sucrose content millers have to pay extra amount.


Zoning system was introduced and millers could take sugar cane from certain lands. The yield per hectare had increased and the quality had improved. Farmers were also able to get timely loans. Though, the system was later abolished because farmers were being exploited.



1)      First the sugar cane is washed

2)      Crushing takes place

3)      Filtration of  sugar cane juice

4)      Heating and evaporation of sugar cane juice by saturation

5)      Treating with limestone to remove further impurities

6)      Crystallization through centrifugal system

7)      Whitening Process- Supplanting process

8)      Sorting by size

9)      Storing sugar in go downs.



The crushing capacity had been increasing until 1998-99 when Pakistan had 71 mills, but then it decreased when the number of mills reduced to 67 due to financial crisis. This affected the overall output in 1999-2000.



In 2001, the installed capacity for sugar production was estimated above 5.5 m tones, whereas the demand was estimated around 3 m tones. The large scale capacity was added in nineties and was the outcome of the entry of politicians in sugar industry, both in Sindh and Punjab.




- Bagasse (25-30 %):

It is used in paper production or fiber boards, which are used for making light furniture.


- Molasses (3.5-4%):

Molasses are further crystallized into distilleries. It is also used for making ethanol.


- Press (10-15%):

It is used to make fertilizers.



-         Liquidity is a problem

-         No Loans

-         Lack of interest

-         Millers don’t want to invest for environmental factors.



-         Unscientific/unsystematic agricultural practice

-         Conventional planting methods

-         Late planting

-         Early and late harvesting

-         Low soil fertility

-         No timely use of fertilizers

-         Crop variety is not in line with the area of cultivation.

-         Preparation of land is not proper

-         Pests, diseases and weeds

-         Credit Shortage

-         Poor Management of Crops

-         Recovery (low sucrose content)












The Russian

A short story By Muhammad Saad Ali

“Did you hear, Mr. Hanif, that the Richardson’s Residence is let at last?” said my maid, Ms. Wilson.


        “Do you talk of our neighbor’s, Ms. Wilson? No, I didn’t,” I replied carelessly, my eyes fixed on a newspaper.


        “They have sent a letter in your name,” she said, grabbing my attention.


         I kept my newspaper on a table near me and looked in her direction. I had tried to ignore her all this time, but she always had some way of drawing my attention towards her.


         She handed me this paper, folded into half. She had read the letter without my permission, and had the audacity to give it to me without the envelope. I didn’t want to start an argument with her, since I was too anxious to read the letter. It was written to the effect that I was invited for tea that evening, by Mr. Richardson. I was shocked. I decided that I would go to his house, but I couldn’t overcome how unexpected the invitation was. What was to come later was even more surprising.


         The Richardson’s Residence was a mansion, four times the size of my house. Ever since my first day in that quiet London town, it had been deserted until that day. As I walked through its garden towards the entrance door of the house, I wondered what this man might want from me. Failing to come up with a reasonable explanation, I told myself, I guess I’ll find out.


         The house inside was all about the old-British lavishness. Victorian, I observed. The rooms were large, filled with elaborate furniture, carpets crafted with Indian elephants, and huge paintings hanging on the walls. There were the usual portraits of women, and the naked Greeks or Romans. The room that I was taken to smelt of French perfumes. In one corner of this room was placed a shiny-black piano. It was their living-room. The place had nothing modern about it, because of which I couldn’t help staring at my surrounding.


         “Hello Mr.” said a voice from behind me.


         “Hanif,” I said turning to this man who seemed about sixty years old.


         “Muslim and Pakistani, excellent!” he said, “I’m very pleased to make your acquaintance.”


          I was already used to such British formalities and had found nothing more loathsome. Still I smiled at his acute guess. He was an obese man with huge bald head. He talked to me about business, Pakistan, Pakistanis, Islam, Jinnah and Benazir. I was not yet asked to be seated.


          “Oh, I forgot. This is my wife, Natasha,” he said, pointing his left arm towards a lady behind him.


          I had not yet noticed her, since she was hiding behind her over-sized husband. I was amazed at what I saw. She was a twenty-something girl, married to this ogre. A closer look showed her to be an extremely gorgeous woman. She was fair with thin luscious lips, platinum blonde hair, and had grey eyes.


           “Hello Miss,” I greeted. I struggled to conceal my amazement.


           She didn’t say anything, but sort of curtseyed. I took it as a Hello. She didn’t look like a British. I was later told that she was Russian.


            It was my most uncomfortable evening here in London.



            In the coming months, I was treated like a family member by Mr. Richardson. He would address me with my friend, son, and seldom use Mr. for me. I frequented his house more than any other place in London. I had grown fond of his hospitality and his kind nature. London was home for me now. His wife, however, was one person I always endeavored to avoid. For a long period she maintained a serious tone with me. While speaking to me, she would stare me in the eyes and I felt that I was unwelcome. She didn’t reserve her tenderness for her husband either. Whenever she smiled, she forced it.


            But then her behavior changed, all of a sudden. She began to speak to me in an unhesitant manner, often smiled to me. She treated me like a friend and shared her secrets with me. She and I would stroll the garden when she’d speak her heart out to me. She told me about her childhood in Russia and her misery: she was sold by her parents to Mr. Richardson.


           She told me, during one of these talks, “I loved my parents more than any other thing in this world. I was the most vivacious girl in entire St. Petersburg. I flirted with the boys in my town but never loved any of them. I could see that all they wanted from me was sex. I wanted someone to love me tenderly, to want me for my heart and soul, not for my body. My father used to drink and gamble. His family was nothing to him. My mother, ignored by my father, had an affair with an aristocrat who afforded our bread and butter. I had a young brother who was a pervert too. He didn’t love me or my parents.


            “My father was in debts. His creditors used to torture him, but he was helpless, and accumulated more debts. Then Mr. Richardson came. He was a widower and intended to marry. My father found out and then he tied my hands and legs and exchanged me for money with Mr. Richardson. I didn’t defend myself. I sacrificed myself. I was eighteen then.”


             There were tears in her eyes. She wiped them with her handkerchief and continued, “Mr. Richardson was sympathetic and kind to me. He has never touched me. He took me to Normandy in France and taught me English. There he introduced me to his friends. They all were evil. They thought I was a whore. And then one day, one of them attacked me, but Mr. Richardson rescued me. We left France, and came here to London, where, I met you.”


           “Mr. Hanif,” cried Ms. Wilson, breaking our conversation, “Your mother called from Pakistan. She said she want to talk to you, as a matter of urgency.”


           Oh, how I hated Ms. Wilson. I left Natasha, without telling her how deeply devastated I was to hear her story.



           In my mind, Natasha had changed from a cold, disdainful person to a delicate, vulnerable creature, which can only be rescued with love, I thought. She was beginning to take over my world. How it soothed my heart to look at her, be near her and listen to her sweet voice. I was afraid I loved her, but I kept it to myself. My conscience kept reminding me of the kind Mr. Richardson, and it distressed me.


          Natasha and I became each other’s confidant. We would talk about our past, mostly pleasant, about our interests and delights, about London, and philosophy even. We had come to a point where we could read each other’s face.


          I once asked her, “Natasha, you used to be this rock, stiff and uninviting. Now you’ve become the most pleasant woman-spreading brightness and energy to people around you. How did this happen?”


          She laughed heartily, and said, “Because I saw in your eyes what I had always looked for in men’s eyes-compassion, honesty, loyalty, and...” she paused, “And love.”


          I embraced her, and we kissed.


          As I looked towards the sky in ecstasy, I caught the sight of Mr. Richardson, gazing at us from a window. There was rage in his eyes, but I couldn’t care less. I am ready for a battle, I thought.



          In the same living room, where it all started, Mr. Richardson sat on an armchair wearing a you’ve-betrayed-me look. It didn’t scare me a bit, but I was worried for Natasha. She was still his wife after all. I was thinking to say, Arrest me but let her go.


         He broke the silence, and said, “You can take her.”


         Our heads turned towards him in astonishment. He must have been crazy.


         “Ever since I bought her from that scoundrel, I have been a guilty man. Her stone-like, emotionless face has been bruising my heart,” said he, “How could I be so cruel?” he started crying and Natasha caught it too. “I knew about you both from very long. I wanted to be sure, Natasha, that he was good for you. Go, I’m liberating you, in repentance of my sins against you. Sign that document on that table, and we’ll be divorced. Just go.”


          Natasha kissed him on the cheek as a Good-bye. She then came running at me; I was still in disbelief, until I squealed in pleasure. I picked her up in a bear hug and danced her around.


          We soon got married, and I took her to Pakistan. When we returned to London-so dear to us-we learned that Mr. Richardson had expired. In his will he left us his entire wealth and the Richardson’s Residence.


          Ms. Wilson had disappeared, but left behind a short note. It read as follows:


 Mr. Hanif,


               If you are looking for me, look no more. I detest working for a man, who stole his neighbor’s wife.


 --Ms. Wilson 


                                                                C'est tout (that's all)